A family discretionary trust (FDT) often has a corporate trustee (TCo) for limited liability and other reasons. With a private company able to access a 30% or lower tax rate on an income distribution received from a FDT, distribution to a private company such as TCo can be a way to access a lower company income rate for a family that does not own or control a private company aside from TCo out of thrift.
But is it a good idea?
Distribution by a FDT to its corporate trustee, TCo, as a “bucket company”, is not necessarily allowable or advisable.
It needs to be understood that FDT deed terms, quality of the FDT deed and FDT set up, including attention to who is a beneficiary of the FDT, vary widely across Australia.
TCo needs to be a beneficiary of the FDT
FDT distributions can only be made to beneficiaries of the FDT. It follows that TCo would need to be entitled in its own right as a beneficiary to a distribution under the terms of the FDT deed. TCo may or may not be a named discretionary beneficiary under the FDT deed.
Many FDT deeds provide for a class of discretionary beneficiary which includes companies owned or controlled by a (some other) beneficiary of the FDT. Sometimes this class is referred to as “eligible corporations” which the FDT deed terms state become beneficiaries of the FDT. These provisions in FDT deeds, if they exist, vary too. Sometimes qualification within a corporate class of discretionary beneficiary turns on someone who qualifies as a beneficiary in the deed:
- owning shares in the company; or
- being a director of the company;
and it can be just one or the other and not necessarily both.
It can’t be assumed that:
- beneficiary qualification in these ways is possible; or
- that TCo meets these beneficiary qualifications;
without checking the FDT deed.
Consequences of distributing income to a non-beneficiary
Consequences of a FDT distributing trust income to a person or company who is not a beneficiary under the deed of a FDT can be:
- failure of the distribution for legal and tax purposes so that the trustee of the FDT is assessed under section 99A of the Income Tax Assessment Act (ITAA) 1936 with income tax at the highest marginal rate; and/or
- treatment of the FDT and distributions from the FDT as a sham by the Australian Taxation Office, other government departments, creditors or others.
Even where TCo may appear to qualify as a beneficiary due to the above, many FDT deeds have overriding exclusionary provisions which exclude persons and companies otherwise specified as beneficiaries from being beneficiaries for various reasons:
Excluded beneficiaries – conflict of interest
Frequently a trustee of a FDT is excluded from being a beneficiary because the trustee, which can exercise the discretion to select discretionary beneficiaries, is in a position of conflict of interest and so TCo, despite qualification as a beneficiary otherwise, is ultimately excluded from being a beneficiary of the FDT. More commonly FDT deeds contain other means which allow a family to control who becomes and acts as a trustee which displaces or should displace inapt conflict of interest considerations as a control redundancy within the deed.
Excluded beneficiaries – stamp duty
But even then a trustee, such as TCo, that may otherwise have qualified as a beneficiary, may still be excluded as a beneficiary by the FDT deed for stamp duty reasons. In New South Wales, in particular, an entitlement to concessional duty under sub-section 54(3) of the Duties Act (NSW) 1997 on a change of trustee of a trust that owns dutiable property can be lost where the a trustee can participate as a beneficiary of the trust.
The consequence of that is a change of trustee of a FDT, say by deed, is treated as a fully ad valorem dutiable transfer of all of the NSW dutiable property of the FDT to the new trustee/s.
Although this limitation of a duty concession varies from other exemptions and concessions applicable to changes of trustee of trusts in states and territories other than NSW, FDT deeds frequently exclude trustees from being beneficiaries out of an abundance of caution that this or a similar stamp duty concession may be lost where the trustee of the FDT is not excluded.
TCo can qualify as a beneficiary – but what then?
If it can be confirmed that TCo does qualify as a beneficiary and is not ultimately excluded as a beneficiary under the trust deed of a FDT, distribution to TCo, rather than another discrete company is still not necessarily a good idea.
Managing TCo’s asset mix
Should TCo receive income from a FDT, and so come to have assets in its own right, TCo will need to manage its assets to ensure that property it holds in its own right and property TCo holds for the FDT are not mixed. A trustee of a trust has a fiduciary duty not to mix trust property with property held not on that trust. This trustee duty is often explicitly set out in FDT deeds.
In terms of title, property distributed to TCo in its own right will be indistinguishable so, without careful accounting and administration of TCo’s activities to ensure trust property isn’t mixed with non-trust property, there is the prospect that a family in control of a FDT may lose track of in which capacity the TCo is owning property and doing things. It will often fall to the accountant of the FDT to sort this out unless the FDT has a very capable and aware functionary administering the FDT for the trustee.
Serious tax risk of losing track of how TCo owns what
Tax risks of unpaid present entitlements (UPE) of TCo in its own right are also high following the recent Draft Taxation Determination TD 2022/D1 Income tax: Division 7A: when will an unpaid present entitlement or amount held on sub-trust become the provision of ‘financial accommodation’? – see our blog post – Draft ATO reimbursement agreement suite out in the wake of Guardian AIT https://wp.me/p6T4vg-q6. Under that draft determination a UPE of a FDT to a private company not detected and promptly repaid (has TCo repaid TCo?) or dealt with under a section 109N of the ITAA 1936 loan agreement, by the time the tax return of the company beneficiary for the income year in which the UPE arises is due, will likely precipitate a deemed and unfrankable dividend to the FDT.
Understanding a company can’t enter into a legally enforceable agreement with itself how could TCo even comply with section 109N as a way to avoid a deemed dividend?
Is distributing to TCo worth it?
Despite the above distribution by FDTs to their corporate trustee as a bucket company is commonplace but done without a keen appreciation of the risks of doing so. I don’t encourage FDTs to distribute to their own trustee even when I am familiar with the trust deed of the FDT. I appreciate there is a cost saving but the costs of running a separate “bucket company”, including the setup and annual ASIC fees and accounting costs, are or should be relatively low so be wary that multi-purposing of TCo can be a false economy for many families with FDTs when the above is taken into account.
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